The history of welding dates back to ancient times. The ancient Egyptians and Romans used welding to join metal parts. The metal was heated to a high temperature and then fused together by hammer blows.
In the Middle Ages, welding was mainly used to make weapons and armour. An important method was forging, in which metal was shaped by hammering and heating. Soldering and riveting were also common joining techniques.
With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, welding became an important technology in manufacturing. A groundbreaking invention was the carbon arc lamp developed by Humphry Davy in 1802. This made it possible to create an electric arc that could be used to weld metals.
In 1881, the Russian Nikolai Benardos invented electric welding, in which an arc is created between an electrode and a workpiece. This process made it possible for the first time to weld thicker metal parts, allowing larger structures to be built.
In the 20th century, other welding techniques were developed, such as oxyacetylene welding, resistance welding and plasma welding. The introduction of shielding gases such as argon and helium in the 1940s enabled gas-shielded welding processes such as tungsten inert gas welding and metal inert gas welding, which are widely used today.
In the 1950s, manual arc welding was replaced by MIG/MAG welding, allowing higher productivity and quality. In the 1960s, robots were used for welding, further improving efficiency and quality.
Today, there are a variety of welding processes used depending on the application and material. Modern welding technologies make it possible to produce high-strength joints that can withstand extreme loads.
Overall, welding has evolved throughout history from a simple craft to a modern technology used in almost all areas of industry. Without welding, modern vehicles, aircraft, buildings and many other products and structures would not be possible.